brand name, drug list & mao of antiepileptic medications

brand name, drug list & mao of antiepileptic medications
antiepileptic medications

drugs that minimized epilepsies that called "antiepileptic drugs".

Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by paroxysmal cerebral dysrhythmia. Also, a loss of consciousness with or without anybody's movement. Epilepsy has a different type like generalized or partial seizures. 

In antiepileptic medications, various types of drugs have been used. That are different types of drugs that control epilepsy. 

Antiepileptic medications:


Barbiturates. phenobarbitone
Deoxybarbiturate. primidone
Iminostilbene. oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine
Hydantoin. phenytoin, fosphenytoin
Succinimide. ethosuximide
Benzodiazepine. clonazepam, lorazepam, diazepam, clobazam
Aliphatic carboxylic acid. sodium valproate (valproic acid)
Phenyltriazine. lamotrigine
Cyclic GABA analogues. pregabalin, gabapentin
Newer drugs. zonisamide, topiramate, levetiracetam, vigabatrin, tiagabine, lacosamide

In antiepileptic medications most common generic & trade name:

antiepileptic medication with their trade name

GENERIC NAME

BRAND (TRADE) NAME
Phenobarbitone

Phenobarbital, sodium, phenobarb
Primidone

Banzel, rufinamide
Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine CR, Tegretol mazepine
Oxacarbazeine

Trileptal
Phenytoin

Phenytoin sodium, tremytoine
Fosphenytoin

Cerebyx
Ethosuximide

Zarontin
Diazepam

Diastat, dipam, Valium
Clonazepam

Rivotril, clonpam, clonazepam – R
Clobazam

Frisium
Valproic acid

Epival, depakene, sodium valproate
Lamotrigine

Lamictal
Pregabalin

Lyrica
Gabapentin

Neurontin

Many new drugs that available in united states like, zonisamide (zonegran), felbamate (flebatol) etc..

antiepileptic drugs mechanism of action:


most of the antiepileptic medications are same mechanism of action (phenytoin, fosphenytoin, oxacarbamazepine, carbamazepine, valproic acid, lamotrigine, topiramate, zonisamide, lacosamide)

The common mechanism of action is all drugs that bind to voltage-dependent sodium channel & inhibit the entry of sodium ions into neurons.

That also inhibits the generation of repetitive action potential. Therefore, also prevent the spreads of seizure.

Also, all drugs that affect GABA activity. That all increase the GABA activity. It’s also increase cl- conduction into the neurons. That produces hyperpolarization. That reduces the neuronal excitability. So, that produces the antiepileptic effect.

Antiepileptic drugs:


PHENOBARBITONE

Phenobarbitone used as an antiepileptic drug. It’s also an act on the GABA. It’s completely oral administration but slowly absorbed. Mechanism action is the same as per above drugs.

Use of phenobarbitone
In antiepileptic medications, phenobarbitone is the cheapest antiepileptic drug. It’s used in partial & generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Also used in febrile convulsion.

It’s also administered in intravenously when the convulsion is not controlled by such drugs like phenytoin & diazepam.

Adverse effect of phenobarbitone:
The many side effect produces like, sedation, megaloblastic anaemia, ataxia, confusion & skin rashes. 


PHENYTOIN

Phenytoin is majorly used as antiepileptic drugs. It doesn’t produce any significant drowsiness.

Phenytoin is bind to the sodium channel and blocks the entry of sodium ion in the neuron. That reduced the intracellular sodium concentration. 

It inhibits the generation of the action potential. It reduces neuronal excitability. Therefore, that inhibits the spread of seizure discharge.

In the high concentration of phenytoin that inhibits the calcium ion entry in the neurons. Also, a reduce that glutamate levels & increase the GABA & activate that.

Phenytoin are absorbed slowly in the neurons. That is completely metabolized by the liver by glucuronide conjugation & hydroxylation. It’s also a dose-dependent elimination produced.

Use of phenytoin
In antiepileptic medications, phenytoin are used in generalized tonic-clonic seizures, partial seizure, also a trigeminal & other neuralgia.

Adverse effect of phenytoin
The side effect of phenytoin is hyperplasia & hypertrophy. It’s also produce the hirsutism – that increase the androgen secretion.

Also, another side effect hyperglycemia, megaloblastic anemia, hypocalcemia, osteomalacia produce.

In high concentration of phenytoin that produces some other side effect like vestibulocerebellar syndrome, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia.

Also, some GI effect & hypersensitivity reaction is produced.


FOSPHENYTOIN:

Fosphenytoin is converted to phenytoin by phosphatase enzyme. That is a prodrug of phenytoin.
Phenytoin is administered as a i.v or i.m route.

Fosphenytoin is used in status epilepticus. Its administered in normal glucose or saline. Also, use for status epileptic.

It’s less cardiotoxic.

Also, a cardiac arrhythmia & hypotension side effect are produced. 


CARBAMAZEPINE:

Its mechanism of action is similar to the & phenytoin. Also, block the sodium ion channel. It's chemically related to the TCAs antidepression (tricyclic).

It’s absorbed slowly in the GI tract. That binds to the plasma protein & distributed in the body including that CSF. It’s also metabolized by the liver.

Use of carbamazepine
In antiepileptic medications, carbamazepine is a common drug. It’s used in GTCS (generalized tonic-clonic seizure), SPS (simple partial seizures) & CPC (complex partial seizure) seizures.

Its block the frequency discharge, also used in trigeminal neuralgias.

It also used in cryosurgery, surgical division, bipolar disorder & acute mania.
It’s also a not effective in diabetic neuropathy.

Adverse effect of carbamazepine
Adverse effect of carbamazepine is vertigo, drowsiness, ataxia, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, confusion & sedation.

Also produce a bone marrow depression, agranulocytosis & aplastic anemia.

Also, some hypersensitivity reaction produces like, skin rashes, lymphadenopathy & eosinophilia.

Sometimes its cause water retention because of release of the release of antidiuretic hormone.


ETHOSUXIMIDE:

Ethosuximide is inhibiting the T- type of calcium in thalamic neurons. Administered via oral. Th mechanism of action is similar to the above mention.

The common side effect is nausea, vomiting, anorexia, hiccough, headache, neutropenia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia 7 bone marrow depression.

Also, a produce a skin rashes.


SODIUM VALPROATE:

Also, a called valproic acid, that is broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs. It’s also a block the sodium channel & T- type of calcium ion in thalamic neurons.

Also, an increase the GABA activity in the brain. Its increase the GABA stimulation & inhibit the degradation of the GABA enzyme.

It’s completely absorbed by the GI tract. Also, a metabolized in the liver & it excreted in the urine.

Use of sodium valproate
It’s used in absence, partial, myoclonic & generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Also used in bipolar disorder, mania & migraine prophylaxis.

Adverse effect of sodium valproate
Its produce CNS side effect like sedation, tremor, ataxia, etc. also produce teratogenicity. So, it's not given during pregnancy.

Also, produce some gastric side effects like nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort & anorexia. Sometimes it produces skin rashes.


BEZODIAZEPAM (DIAZEPAM, CLONAZEPAM & LORAZEPAM)

Diazepam & lorazepam are used in the treatment of status epilepticus. Clonazepam is used in myoclonic seizure & absence seizure.

Diazepam is the short duration on action but rapid onset of action.

During an emergency, Its can be administered through rectal in children.

Lorazepam is used in status epilepticus due to its long duration & rapid onset of action. Also, very little damage when inserting through an injected vein.

The mechanism of action are same as above.

Adverse effect of benzodiazepine
When administered through intravenous its causes hypotension & respiratory depression. Also, some CNS side effects produce like sedation & lethargy.

Some, another side effect like dizziness, behavioral disturbance, hypotonia & dysarthria.

CONCLUSION:

In antiepileptic medications various medicines that cure epilepsy. Here, you found a complete detail of each antiepileptic drug. If you like it comment out.

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antiepileptic medications, antiepileptic drugs mechanism of action, antiepileptic meaning, antiepileptic drugs list, antiepileptic drugs brand name, Classification of antiepileptic medications